Historical Monuments and mining heritage in Pulpi
Historical Monuments and mining heritage in Pulpi, Almeria, Spain.
The Church of San Miguel Arcange l, is one of the oldest buildings in Pulpí .
In 1787 the construction of a church in the town was requested in order to perform the duties of Parish Administration Minister and Sacraments. Back then, Pulpí belonged to the municipality of Vera. The construction of the church began in 1797 by the architect Juan Antonio Munar being his neoclassical style.
The church was completed in 1801, as stipulated by the marble plaque above the door, and reads: "Reign in Majesty Lord House Don Carlos IV"
Managed by the Bishop of Almería. The interior consists of a rectangular nave of 355m2, and the tower that houses the bell measures 24,5m. It has large windows, a vault is the barrel and is topped with a tiled roof gable.
The first record of this date 29-08-1801. The Church has been rebuilt several times since it has suffered several disasters since its construction: in 1879 he suffered a flood, in 1966 a large fire destroyed the altarpiece. The last renovation was in 2009, this was carried out by an employment project in Pulpí. This workshop built a new altar 8m wide and 12m high, the altarpiece consists of straight lines, linear moldings and some pieces in size. In the Later are images of St. Michael the Archangel chaired by the golden shrine, Archangels San Rafael and San Gabriel. The preparation has been done carved and decorated by the technique of water and applications of gold leaf.
The church was decorated with replicas of digital pictures of the holy family, the Last Supper and the sacred heart. Oldest images of this church are the Virgen del Carmen that initially co-patron of the Church of Nazareth, the Virgin of Sorrows, Our Lady of Sorrows and the Immaculate.
Castle of San Juan de Los Terreros
Tower Terreros was constructed at the same time as the castle of Aguilas, the works began in 1578 and it was designed by a corporal and three soldiers. Terreros tower was the last of the Kingdom of Granada.
Under the reign of Felipe V, in 1743 a ship of war English shelled the tower of San Juan de los Terreros knocking off one corner and it was repaired in 1745.
The beginning of the work of the battery began with the demolition of the old tower In 1746 under the reign of Carlos III artillery battery was built, the original project was architect Thomas Werluzel D'Hostel and was completed by Antonio Duce.
Served on a budget of urban militia artillery and void. With an optimal location to dominate much of the coast of Murcia as both the Almeria coast, defended the coast of pirate attacks in the Maghreb.
The oceanfront barracks hornabeque shaped plant which is accessed by a drawbridge that exceeds the pit, sloping walls, exterior torus semicircular bastions, few openings, blocks, etc ... Battery Responding to a prototype created by military engineers. To the left of the gateway, is the fourth of the stores and warehouse next to which parts of powder were placed in one of the bastions, right the barracks of the soldiers and the kitchen is in the other stronghold. On both sides of the battery and the latrine ladder to climb to the roofs protected by a parapet with loopholes for musketry and the protection of the soldiers who defended fortification any attacks.
Mass was said in the battery to teach Christian doctrine to the troops. On the back of strong home designed to service revenue.
In 1945 the battery of San Juan de los Terreros served as a lookout for the Civil Guard until the year 70, twentieth century saw its total abandonment.
In 1949 it was declared of Cultural Interest in the category of Monument, currently used as Interpretive Center Coastal Andaluz .Also is used for photojournalists and weddings for its ocean views, and views of the two volcanic islands that were also declared Natural Monuments of great beauty, incorporating an extraordinary value to the castle.
Pulpí The sundial is located in the neighborhood of the mill in the center square of the amnesty. This watch was designed by Lorenzo Lopez Pulpileño Asensio, the October 12, 2006.
It is the highest of Andalucia measuring 7.7 cm, and is noted for its ornamental character.
Sundials were no longer used when mechanical clocks appeared which give us the exact time. Solar watches go back an hour in both winter and summer.
Note that those who give us the actual time are solar watches which have been copied to the official reference clocks Greenwich Meridian 0.
The assembly forming a sundial is called "The Four Elements" and consists of four large rectangular concrete prisms ending in and wave emerging from a base on which marked the cardinal points.
In the two most advanced pieces were placed hour lines in solar time, over which the shadow is cast by two semicircular gnomons of stainless steel.
We have a rich archaeological and industrial heritage of the nineteenth century in our municipality belonging to important past mining in our province.
We highlight the following mines to be found in the best condition:
At the foot of the Sierra del Gable, oceanfront beach Terreros, almost on the border with the province of Murcia, in a location of spectacular and beautiful scenery, it is perhaps one of the few full testimonials of an iron mine, the kilns are practically complete with all facilities, except of course the absence of iron structures, which disappeared in the early stages of closure with the early arrival of scrap sale.
The site began in the 1850s exploited the mining of lead, but later was the center of a small farm oxides and carbonates, immediate payback in railway Almendricos to Aguilas, which cheapened transportation.
The derrick or derrick is the structure (whether of wood, metal or works) that covers the hole in the mine shaft to climb the cage with minerals and people being connected to an adjacent construction where the steam would be installed by moving the straps or straps that pull the winch gears. In this case it would be late because the engine power, as shown in the nearby electrical transformer.
Closeby is located a chimney for ventilation, breathing air from the underground mine, and above the railway branch is located Almendricos to Aguilas on the line from Baza to Lorca, proximity was required for the shipment of iron ore, with a low value per unit it did not support high transport costs.
Top left a huge tip and place of washing iron ore, and down the kilns, essential to increase the tenor, or the amount of metal in proportion to the set of mined ore, if iron carbonates is located just 25 or 30% purity, forcing calcined ore to increase the law before export. In the case of iron oxide with 50 or 60% this work was unnecessary.
The metal trucks come from above with a gateway to the mouth of the furnace where the precious cargo basculaban, flowing down as a mineral devoid of much of its impurities. The control booth next to the railway company would monitor the road transport volume in order to collect the corresponding fees of transportation.
Above the railway inclined plane is seen reaching a large hopper, and surely received ore from above through other inclined planes moving ore from the nearby mountains from other galleries.
The aerial cable next to the kilns had mineral purified to above the track to facilitate the rapid and inexpensive transportation to the train.
So in a small space we complete all elements of a small mining exploitation of iron mines, kilns, overhead wires, rail hoist, inclined planes ... It is of the very few examples of industrial archeology a very short-lived assets in relation to mining Almeria last century, in an advanced state of destruction and neglect, despite its interesting location off the coast and its remarkable historical and landscape value, made it recommended for protection as BIC
The mine Nine Fanegas
In the coastal village of San Juan de los Terreros we find a kiln, in good condition, located in the remains of an old mining smelter in which iron extracted from about 1865-1880. This one was carrying until Pichirichi where it was shipped. The mines are located on a high hill site of The 9 Bushels and are now obsolete.
Jaravía Pillar Mining Complex, Mina "San Jose".
It is one of the few mines that was photographed during its activity by photographer José Rodrigo Lorca to 1875. This mine was mined iron carbonates and lead sulfide and some silver. A winch with a triple feature is observed: lowering and rising operators through a cage; mineral extraction; and removing water when it was needed. The straps that attached to the hoist pulleys would be powered by a steam engine with a capacity of six to eight horses. Buckets that were used for the extraction of water are observed. The photo shows how the miners and their families lived on the premises of the mine itself, which was unusual in the area.
Mercury Mine (cinnabar)
It exploded in the late nineteenth century, it was known by the name of "Descent of the Holy Spirit" and is situated in the valley of Quicksilver.
Quicksilver is formerly called as mercury and is also the name of the disease caused by the absorption of mercury vapor that produces tremors, nervousness and hyperactivity.
Small marble quarry in the mountains of Gable.
In the foothills of the western slope of the Sierra del Gable, and placed under the peak that gives the name to the mountain, there is a small mining. It is a stone quarry, as evidenced by the blocks and a small tip that is still preserved.
The operation has two vertical walls interconnected relative importance, describing an angle of approximately ninety degrees.
In this operation, available information leads us to the second half of S XX, which is a period marked by new applications for research permits in the mining sector Pulpí. The marble quarry in question is the result of these research applications promoted March 24, 1962 by Eladio Garcia and Julio Federico Perez -Viana. Nearly two decades of research passed and convinced of the potential of Sierra Gable continued his commitment to the mid-1980s, and after making a huge number of polling, pits, shafts and galleries, reportedly revealed the Ministry Industry, a major site of red and gray marbles in Sierra Gable, more than 2 km long and 200 m higher power, belonging to the Middle Triassic Superior Alpujarride Complex. With all this, we tried to put into exploitation of these resources, but the expiration of concessions by one party and a clerical error on the other, resulted in the loss of the Victoria and Expansion permissions to Victoria after an administrative dispute which ended in April 1992 adversely to claimants, which shall terminate at any mining initiative in Sierra Gable strengthened even further with its classification as LIC area.
Museum of Benzal (Ceniha)
CENIHA is a Network of Centres of Rural Habitat Interpretation. In Andalusia there are seven such centers. Pulpí hasthe privilege of having one. This center is located on Vagisil, one of the oldest districts of the municipality.
The Interpretation Centre Rural Habitat is a multipurpose space aimed at giving knowledge, awareness and dissemination of rural heritage. It helps to reaffirm the hallmarks of the municipality and aims to bring to the collective memory and the common identity of its inhabitants from the communication of its cultural heritage, understanding this in its broadest sense, encompassing the ecological / environmental, archaeological, historical, ethnological, technological, architectural, monumental, etc.
The proposed museum script revolves around two interpretive landmarks very much interlinked:
- 1. Water: For being a vital element in an arid area.
- 2. Agriculture: very close to the water is an activity that has experienced a spectacular development in Pulpí, causing major and profound changes in the current socio-economic and cultural model.
They will therefore guide the story to guide and connect the various rooms or thematic sections that comprise the museum dedicated to the interpretation of the territory of the settlement, economic activity and the collective memory of the town.
- 0. Reception Room: "The Ceniha network."
- Room 1. Interpretation of the territory: "Sea steppes and mountains."
- Room 2. Interpretation of settlement: "Who inhabited these places?".
- Room 3. Traditional Economic Activities, "The Works and Days".
- Room 4. Memory of a people: "The trunk of memories."
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